Recurrent somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from immature zygotic embryos of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis)
Zdravković-Korać, Snežana R.
Vinterhalter, Dragan V
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A simple and rapid protocol was established for repetitive somatic embryogenesis and subsequent plant regeneration in two important Brassica oleracea varieties, cabbage and cauliflower. Direct regeneration of somatic embryos (SEs) was achieved from immature zygotic embryos cultured on B5 plant growth regulator (PGR)-free (B5-0) induction medium and on B5 medium supplemented with 1 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (B5-D). Zygotic embryos of both cabbage and cauliflower at the cotyledonary (C) stage (1.8 mm long) incubated on B5-0 medium displayed the highest embryo-forming capacities (EFCs) of 11.84 and 11.95, respectively. Secondary somatic embryos (SSEs) appeared on the cabbage and cauliflower's primary embryos at a high frequency (83.3 and 87.5 %, respectively), and this process continued in a repetitive way on PGR-free Murashige and Skoog (MS-0) medium. The embryogenic potential of the cultures with a gradual diminution was maintained for 10 months (ten cycles). A total of 20 % of the mature SSEs from cabbage and 55 % from cauliflower spontaneously regenerated plantlets on MS-0 medium. The addition of 1 mg l(-1) 6-benzyladenine (BA) or 6-furfurylaminopurine (Kin) in the regeneration medium significantly improved somatic embryo conversion into plantlets by up to 56 % in cabbage and 79 % in cauliflower. Regenerated plants acclimated successfully to ex vitro conditions and displayed morphological and reproductive characteristics similar to seed-derived plants. Effective recurrent somatic embryogenesis may be an appropriate practical solution for clonal propagation and genetic modifications of cabbage and cauliflower.