Membrane Fluidity, Invasiveness and Dynamic Phenotype of Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cells after Treatment with Soy Isoflavones
Mojić, Marija K.
Maksimović-Ivanić, Danijela D.
Bulatović, Mirna Z.
Mijatović, Sanja A.
Spasojević, Ivan B
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Soy isoflavones represent hopeful unconventional remedies in the therapy of prostate cancer. The aim of our study was to determine the effects of genistein and daidzein on the parameters that reflect metastatic potential, membrane fluidity, invasiveness and dynamic phenotype in Matrigel of LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cells. Cell viability tests, using a wide range of concentrations of soy isoflavones (6-75 mu g/ml for 72 h), were conducted to determine their IC50 concentrations. Electron paramagnetic resonance investigations of prostate cancer cell membrane fluidity were performed at IC50 concentrations of genistein and daidzein (12.5 and 25 mu g/ml, respectively, for 10 min). Genistein provoked significant increases in the membrane order parameter (which is reciprocally proportional to membrane fluidity) of 0.722 +/- A 0.006 (LNCaP), 0.753 +/- A 0.010 (LNCaP + genistein), 0.723 +/- A 0.007 (PC-3) and 0.741 +/- A 0.004 (PC-3 + genistein); however, no such effects were observed for daidzein. While both genistein and daidzein reduced the proliferation of prostate cancer cells at their respective IC50 concentrations, during the 72 h of incubation only genistein provoked effects on the dynamic phenotype and decreased invasiveness. The effect was more evident in PC-3 cells compared to LNCaP cells. Our results imply that (1) invasive activity is at least partially dependent on membrane fluidity, (2) genistein may exert its antimetastatic effects by changing the mechanical properties of prostate cancer cells and (3) daidzein should be applied at higher concentrations than genistein in order to achieve pharmacological effects.