Therapeutic Potential of Nitric Oxide-Modified Drugs in Colon Cancer Cells
Stanković, Marija M
McCubrey, James A
Article (Published version)
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We have examined the influence of the nitric oxide (NO)modified anti-inflammatory drug (S, R)-3-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxasole acetic acid (VGX-1027) named GIT-27NO or the NO-modified antiviral drug saquinavir (Saq) named Saq-NO on two colon cancer cell lines, mouse CT26CL25 and human HCT116. The effects of the drugs on cell viability, apoptosis, proliferation, and metastatic potential were analyzed. The release of NO and oxygen and nitrogen species was also determined. The efficacy of the drugs was evaluated in vivo in BALB/c mice injected with CT26CL25 cells. Both agents suppressed the growth of colon cancer cells in vitro and reduced tumor volume in syngeneic BALB/c mice. However, their mechanisms of action were different because GIT-27NO released larger amounts of nitrite than Saq-NO in cell cultures and its antitumor action depended on the intracellular NO release inside the cells. On the contrary, Saq-NO released barely detectable amounts of NO and its antitumor action was NO-independent. In fact, cotreatment with an NO-peroxynitrite scavenger revealed that GIT-27NO but not Saq-NO acts through peroxynitrite-mediated cell destruction. At the cellular level, GIT-27NO prevalently induced proapoptotic signals followed by caspase-dependent apoptosis. In contrast, Saq-NO blocked cell proliferation, changed the adhesive, migratory, and invasive properties of the cells, and decreased metastatic potential in vivo. In conclusion, differences in NO release and oxidative stress generation between GIT-27NO and Saq-NO resulted in different mechanisms that caused cell death.