Seasonal dynamics of allelopathically significant phenolic compounds in globally successful invader Conyza canadensis L. plants and associated sandy soil
Authors:Đurđević, Lola A.
Gajić, Gordana M.
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The seasonal dynamics of total phenolics and phenolic acids in the stems of the global invader Conyza canadensis, from March (young plants in the form of rosettes) to September (fruit abscission and the beginning of plant decline), and in sandy soil were monitored monthly in non-native areas. The highest amount of total free phenolics was found in its tissues (31,000 mu g g(-1)) during the flowering and fruiting time (August). Bound phenolics peaked (up to 8443 mu g g(-1)) during shoot elongation and intensive plant growth (May-June) and in September. In the stems, bound phenolic acids (p-coumaric, ferulic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic and syringic) have a maximum twice, in May and in August, with ferulic acid predominating (up to 951.6 mu g g(-1)). Free phenolic acids in the plant's tissue peaked in May (plant elongation). In the soil under C. canadensis, the amount of bound phenolics decreased between March and June, before increasing up to the full bloom phase of the plants (August). The amount of bound phenolic acids was several times greater than that of free ones, with maximum values in August. C. canadensis is a highly important source of phenolics in the ruderal phytocoenosis in new areas. In order to better explain the mechanisms of the spread and domination of invasive plants in non-native areas, in which allelopathy plays a decisive role, it is necessary to measure the production of allelochemicals in tissue and their accumulation in soil at the shortest possible intervals and link this with the phases of plant development. (C) 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.