Changes in chromosomal polymorphism and global warming: The case of Drosophila subobscura from Apatin (Serbia)
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In this study, chromosomal inversion polymorphism data for a natural population of Drosophila subobscura from a swampy region near the town of Apatin (Serbia) were compared with data for the same population collected approximately 15 years earlier. The pattern of chromosomal inversion polymorphism changed over time. There were significant increases in the frequency of characteristic southern latitude ("warm" adapted) chromosomal arrangements and significant decreases in the frequency of characteristic northern latitude ("cold" adapted) chromosomal arrangements in the O and U chromosomes. The chromosomal arrangements O(3+4) and O(3+4+22) (derived from the O(3+4) arrangement) showed significant increases in 2008 and 2009 with regard to the 1994 sample. There was also a significant increase (similar to 50%) in the U(1+2) arrangement, while U(1+8+2) (a typical southern arrangement) was detected for the first time. Since the Apatin swampy population of D. subobscura has existed for a long time in a stable habitat with high humidity that has not been changed by man our results indicate that natural selection has produced chromosomal changes in response to the increase in temperature that has occurred in the Balkan Peninsula of central southeastern European.