Secondary somatic embryogenesis versus caulogenesis from somatic embryos of Aesculus carnea Hayne.: developmental stage impact
Authors:Zdravković-Korać, Snežana R.
Ćalić-Dragosavac, Dušica D.
Janošević, Dušica A.
Budimir, Snežana M.
Vinterhalter, Branka S.
Vinterhalter, Dragan V
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Somatic embryos of red horse chestnut, derived from cultures maintained through repetitive somatic embryogenesis for a few years, were subjected to induction of secondary regeneration. The embryos were divided in four classes on the basis of their size (I-1, II-5, III-10 and IV-30 mm), and sub-cultured on MS media containing 0, 1, 5 or 10 mu M kinetin (Kin) or benzyladenine (BA). The pathway of secondary regeneration, somatic embryogenesis or caulogenesis, depended on the primary somatic embryo (PSE) stage of development. The embryogenic capacity declined and bud-forming capacity increased with the degree of PSE maturity. The PSE of the Classes I and II produced only secondary somatic embryos (SSE), the Class III PSE formed both SSE and adventitious buds, whereas the Class IV PSE developed almost solely adventitious buds. The process of secondary somatic embryogenesis was most effective in the Class II PSE at 5 mu M BA, and the process of adventive organogenesis was most effective in the Class IV PSE at 10 mu M BA. On plant growth regulator (PGR)-free medium, PSE of A. carnea followed the same pattern of adventive regeneration, as those cultured on cytokinin containing media. The cytokinins only amplified the response, in a certain range of concentrations. BA promoted bud induction at a much higher rate than Kin, while their embryogenic effect was similar.