Anticancer properties of the novel nitric oxide-donating compound (S,R)-3-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazole acetic acid-nitric oxide in vitro and in vivo
Harhaji, Ljubica M.
Cheng, Kai Fan
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Preclinical studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO)donating nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs possess anticancer activities. Here, we report in vitro and in vivo studies showing the antitumor effect of the NO-donating isoxazole derivative (S,R)-3-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazole acetic acid (GIT-27NO). GIT-27NO, but not the NO-deprived parental compound VGX-1027, significantly affected viability of both rodent (L929, B16, and C6) and human (U1251, BT20, HeLa, and LS174) tumor cell lines. GIT-27NO triggered either apoptotic cell death (e.g., L929 cells) or autophagic cell death (C6 and B16 cells). Moreover, GIT-27NO hampered the viability of cisplatin-resistant B16 cells. NO scavenger hemoglobin completely prevented GIT-27NO-induced death, indicating that NO release mediated the tumoricidal effect of the compound. Increase in intracellular NO upon on the treatment was associated with intensified production of reactive oxygen species, whereas their neutralization by antioxidant N-acetylcysteine resulted in partial recovery of cell viability. The antitumor activity of the drug was mediated by the selective activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in a cell-specific manner and was neutralized by their specific inhibitors. In vivo treatment with GIT-27NO significantly reduced the B16 melanoma growth in syngeneic C57BL/6 mice. The therapeutic effect occurred at dose (0.5 mg/mouse) up to 160 times lower than those needed to induce acute lethality (80 mg/mouse). In addition, a dose of GIT-27NO five times higher than that found effective in the melanoma model was well tolerated by the mice when administered for 4 consecutive weeks. These data warrant additional studies to evaluate the possible translation of these findings to the clinical setting.