In vitro multiplication of willow gentian (Gentiana asclepiadea L.) and the production of gentiopicrine and mangiferin
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A protocol for in vitro propagation of Gentiana asclepiadea was developed. The best multiplication rate was obtained with woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with 8.9 mu M BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and 1.1 mu M IAA (indole-3-acetic acid). Gibberellic acid in the presence of 8.9 mu M BAP and 1.1 mu M IAA stimulated shoot elongation without affecting multiplication index. Although spontaneous rooting on hormone-free medium was observed, auxins increased the rooting ability. Treatment with IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) induced a higher number of roots, while the addition of IAA caused an increase in root length. The accumulation of mangiferin and gentiopicrine, in G. asclepiadea grown in vitro, was much lower in roots than in shoots. The accumulation of gentiopicrine and mangiferin in cultured plants was significantly enhanced in the presence of cytokinins (BAP), even above the level of plants from natural habitat.