Immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory action of antioxidants in rat autoimmune diabetes
Cvetković, Ivana D.
Trajković, Vladimir S
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Oxidative stress makes an important contribution to the development of autoimmune diabetes. We therefore tested the possible therapeutic value of two anti-oxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbarnate (PDTC), in the animal model of diabetes induced in susceptible DA rats by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLD-SZ, 20 mg/kg/day for 5 days). Administration of either BHA, or PDTC (50 mg/kg/day for 7 days), after finishing MLD-SZ injections, attenuated both the development of hyperglycemia and insulitis. Ex vivo analysis revealed that BHA treatment reduced the proliferation of autoreactive lymphocytes and down-regulated their adhesion to endothelium. In addition, BHA markedly attenuated the production of proinflammatory cytokines 1L-1beta and TNF-alpha by both islets of pancreas and peritoneal macrophages. In parallel, macrophage release of cytotoxic oxygen and nitrogen intermediates superoxide anion (O-2.(-)) and nitric oxide (NO.), respectively, was significantly inhibited. Finally, BHA treatment reduced intrapancreatic expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and consequent production of NO. by pancreatic islets. Together, these data indicate that antioxidant agents might be a feasible therapeutic tools to interfere with development of autoimmune diabetes at multiple levels, including lymphocyte proliferation and adhesion, as well as the production of proinflammatory and cytotoxic mediators. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.