Peripheral blood granulocyte activity following epicutaneous application of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) in rats
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Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) is the most commonly studied irritant. Beside local skin effects, there are data that suggest effects of SDS in the context of the systemic microenvironment. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are quantitative and qualitative changes in peripheral blood granulocytes following one-time open epicutaneous application of SDS in rats. An increase in total leukocyte numbers with a shift toward granulocytes was noted following application of 0.4% SDS, while the metabolic activity of isolated peripheral blood granulocytes was increased after application of both 0.2% and 0.4% SDS. Differences were not noted in both spontaneous cell activation [evaluated by cytochemical nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assay] and adhesion to plastic. Examination of granulocyte activity following 0.4% SDS application (when both quantitative and changes in metabolic activity were observed) demonstrated an increase in phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated activation and adhesion of granulocytes compared to responses of cells from control animals, suggesting their primed state. An increase in metabolic granulocyte activity was noted in overnight cultures supplemented with autologous plasma of granulocytes from the 0.4% SDS group, pointing to the role of systemic factors in observed increase in functional activity. As presented in this study, changes in peripheral blood granulocytes illustrate systemic effects of topical SDS application.