Necrotic tumor cells oppositely affect nitric oxide production in tumor cell lines and macrophages
Mostarica-Stojković, Marija B
Trajković, Vladimir S
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Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly reactive free radical with profound tumoricidal activity, produced by both macrophages and tumor cells. While it has been postulated that necrotic tumor cells can augment macrophage anti-tumor action, we investigated the effect of tumor cell necrosis on NO synthesis and viability of L929 fibrosarcoma and C6 astrocytoma cell lines. The presence of necrotic tumor cells dose-dependently reduced NO production in IFN-gamma stimulated L929 cells, and rescued them from NO-dependent autotoxicity. This effect was mediated through soluble products, since it was completely preserved after blocking the contact between the necrotic and live cells. On the other hand, apoptotic tumor cells were unable to suppress IFN-gamma-triggered NO release and subsequent decrease of cell respiration in L929 cultures. Similar results were obtained with C6 astrocytoma cell line. This down-regulation of NO synthesis in response to necrotic cell products was not specific for tumor cell lines, since necrotic tumor cells markedly suppressed NO production in cytokine-stimulated primary fibroblasts and astrocytes. In contrast, both murine and rat peritoneal macrophages readily increased their basal or IFN-gamma-induced NO production when incubated with necrotic tumor cells. Taken together, these results suggest that tumor cell necrosis might promote or restrict tumor growth through suppression or enhancement of NO synthesis in tumor cells and macrophages, respectively, with net effect presumably depending on the extent of macrophage infiltration. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.