Extracts of three Laserpitium L. species and their principal components laserpitine and sesquiterpene lactones inhibit microbial growth and biofilm formation by oral Candida isolates
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Antimicrobial properties of extracts of underground parts of three Laserpitium L. (Apiaceae) species, namely Laserpitium latifolium L., Laserpitium zernyi Hayek and Laserpitium ochridanum Micevski, were investigated. The investigated species are widely used as functional foods, as spices and for preparations in traditional medicine for treating complaints connected with infection and inflammation. Furthermore, antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of laserpitine, the most abundant compound in the chloroform extract of Laserpitium latifolium, and guaianolide sesquiterpene lactones, such as, isomontanolide, montanolide and tarolide, principal components of the extracts of Laserpitium zernyi and Laserpitium ochridanum were assessed. The antimicrobial activity was tested using the microdilution method against five pathogenic bacteria and five fungi, as well as in the microplate biofilm assay on two Candida clinical isolates (C. albicans and C. krusei). Among the extracts, Laserpitium latifolium showed the most prominent activity. Isolated metabolites exerted higher effects against fungal than against bacterial strains, isomontanolide being the most active. Interestingly, all constituents showed higher potential on inhibition of biofilm formation than fluconazole, a reference compound. Tested metabolites may be good novel agents with high antifungal and antibacterial potential that might find practical applications in food industry as food preservatives in order to retard the growth of food spoiling microbes, but only after detailed safety assessments.