Hairy root exudates of allelopathic weed Chenopodium murale L. induce oxidative stress and down-regulate core cell cycle genes in Arabidopsis and wheat seedlings
Cingel, Aleksandar D.
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The effects of Chenopodium murale root exudates, applied as phytotoxic medias (PMs), were tested on Arabidopsis thaliana and Triticum aestivum. The effects of PMs, where wild-type roots (K), hairy roots derived from roots (R clones) or from cotyledons (C clones) were cultured, were different. K medium suppressed Arabidopsis germination, while other PMs reduced root and leaf elongation and the number of rosette leaves. R media were more phytotoxic than C media. Treatment of Arabidopsis with R8 down-regulated expression of core cell cycle genes: cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) A1;1, four B-class CDKs, and cyclins CYCA3;1, CYCB2;4, CYCD4;2 and CYCH1 in root and shoot tips. Only CYCD2;1 transcript was elevated in treated shoots, but down-regulated in roots. Wheat Ta-CDC2 and Ta-CYCD2 genes showed the same expression profiles as their Arabidopsis counterparts, CDKA1;1 and CYCD2;1. PMs also caused increase of antioxidative enzyme activities in both plants. Exposure of Arabidopsis to PMs induced one catalase isoform, but repressed another, resulting in no net change of catalase activity. Wheat seedlings treated with PMs had catalase activity significantly elevated in all treatments, particularly in shoots. In both plants, PMs induced the activity of different peroxidase isozymes and total peroxidase activity. Both plants responded to phytotoxic treatments by induction of CuZn-superoxide dismutase. Thus, the phytotoxicity of C. murale root exudates is, at least partially, based on down-regulation of the cell cycle regulators and on generation of oxidative stress in the affected plants. We propose that C. murale root exudates should be considered as means of biological weed control.