Analiza antitumorskog delovanja agenasa modifikovanih azot-monoksidom, Sakvinavir-NO i GIT-27NO na kanceru kolona in vitro i in vivo
In vitro and in vivo evaluation of antitumor activity of NO-modified compounds, Saquinavir-NO and GIT-27NO in colon cancer
Doctoral thesis (Published version)
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Concept of using anti-inflammatory and anti-infectious agents in cancer therapy is based on a known relationship between inflammation and infection on one side and carcinogenesis and tumor progression on the other side. However, the problem of gastrotoxicity of anti-inflammatory and general toxicity of antiviral drugs, along with their low bioavailability, marks a strong barrier when considering them in therapies for which they were not initially intended for. In order to overcome the pharmacological limits of these compounds, nitric-oxide (NO) with its documented feature to neutralize toxicity of drugs on various levels was added to anti-inflammatory agent VGX-1027 and antiretroviral agent saquinavir (Saq). The advantage of new compounds, GIT-27NO and Saq-NO, over known non-steroid anti-inflammatory agents modified by covalent binding NO moiety (NO-NSAID) is the absence of “carrier” molecule, which is responsible for genotoxicity of NO-NSAID. Structural change in these compounds resulted in potentiation of antitumor action, confirmed by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies, along with reduced toxicity of GIT-27NO or complete loss of toxicity of Saq-NO treatment.In this study, antitumor potential of GIT-27NO and Saq-NO was tested in vitro and in vivo for the first time in colon cancer model, one of the most severe forms of malignancy. As both agents are NO-derivates, the role of NO in their antitumor action was defined. On molecular level, main intercellular events triggered by the treatment were determined. Finally, considering the importance of microenvironment for tumor growth and progression, the ability of GIT-27NO and Saq-NO to re-establish colon cancer cell sensitivity to TRAIL-mediated antitumor immune response was tested.GIT-27NO and Saq-NO reduced the viability of mouse CT26CL25 and human HCT116 colon cancer cell lines, both in vitro and in vivo. The importance of NO release for antitumor action was quite different. While cell viability reduction under GIT-27NO treatment was due to accumulation of high intracellular concentration of NO and consecutively generated oxidative and nitrosative stress, antitumor action of Saq-NO was not mediated by a release of quantitatively relevant amount of this free radical. GIT-27NO induced the accumulation of p53 tumor suppressor, changed pro- and antiapoptotic molecule ratio and triggered mitochondrial membrane depolarization which resulted in cell death via caspase-dependent apoptosis.
Keywords:Colon cancer; Chemotherapy; GIT-27NO; Saq-NO; Apoptosis; Metastasis; S6protein; TRAIL
Source:University of Belgrade, Faculty of Biology, 2013, 1-120
- Molecular mechanisms of physiological and pharmacological control of inflammation and cancer (RS-173013)