Uloga inhibicije protein-kinaze aktivirane adenozin-monofosfatom u indukciji apoptoze i autofagije u tumorskim ćelijskim linijama
The role of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase inhibition in apoptosis and autophagy induction in tumor cell lines
Doctoral thesis (Published version)
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In this doctoral dissertation the effect of intracellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibition on induction of apoptosis and autophagy in tumor cells was investigated. Pharmacological AMPK inhibitor dorsomorphin caused G2/M cell cycle block, accompanied by apoptotic cell death characterized by caspase activation, phosphatidylserine exposure and DNA fragmentation in U251 human and C6 rat glioma cells, while it had no effect on viability of primary rat astrocytes and B16 mouse melanoma cells. The mechanisms underlying the pro-apoptotic action of dorsomorphin involved induction of oxidative stress and down-regulation of antiapoptotic molecule Bcl-2. Dorsomorphin diminished AMPK phosphorylation and enzymatic activity, resulting in reduced phosphorylation of its target acetyl CoA carboxylase. AMPK activators metformin and AICAR partly prevented the cell cycle block, oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by dorsomorphin. The small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting of human AMPK mimicked dorsomorphin-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, but failed to induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in U251 glioma cells. Therefore, AMPK inhibition is required, but not sufficient for dorsomorphin-mediated apoptotic death of glioma cells. In this study, it was also reported that dorsomorphin can induce autophagy in cancer cells. The induction of autophagy in U251 human glioma cell line was demonstrated by acridine orange staining of intracellular acidic vesicles, Beclin 1 induction, p62 decrease and conversion of LC3-I to autophagosome-associated LC3-II in the absence and presence of proteolysis inhibitors. The presence of autophagosome like vesicles was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Dorsomorphin-mediated inhibition of AMPK and Raptor in U251 cells was associated with paradoxical decrease in phosphorylation of AMPK/Raptor-repressed mTOR, a major negative regulator of autophagy, and its downstream target p70S6K. The phosphorylation of mTOR activator Akt and PI3K-activating kinase Src was also impaired in dorsomorphin-treated cells. The siRNA-mediated AMPK silencing did not reduce the activity of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway and AMPK activators metformin and AICAR failed to block dorsomorphin-induced autophagy. Autophagy inhibitors bafilomycin and chloroquine significantly increased the cytotoxicity of dorsomorphin towards U251 cells, as confirmed by the increase in lactate dehydrogenase release, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. Similar effects of dorsomorphin were also observed in C6 rat glioma, L929 mouse fibrosarcoma and B16 mouse melanoma cell lines. Since dorsomorphin has previously been reported to suppress AMPK dependent autophagy in different cell types, results in this study suggest that the effects of dorsomorphin on autophagy might be dose-, cell type- and/or context-dependent. By demonstrating the ability of dorsomorphin to induce autophagic response in cancer cells via AMPK inhibition-independent downregulation of Akt/mTOR pathway, results warrant caution when using dorsomorphin to inhibit AMPK-dependent cellular responses, but also suggest that dorsomorphin, alone or in combination with autophagy inhibitors, could be potential candidate for anticancer therapy.
Keywords:Glioma; Dorsomorphin; AMPK; Apoptosis; Oxidative stress; Autophagy; Cancer; Akt; mTOR
Source:University of Belgrade, Faculty of Biology, 2013, 1-90