The effects of cadmium on the life history traits of Lymantria dispar L.
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Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) females and males were chronically exposed to three sublethal cadmium concentrations (10, 30 and 50 mg/g dry food mass) in order to assess the effects of cadmium on larval and pupal duration, pupal mass and longevity. On average, the presence of cadmium in food did not affect larval duration while shortened pupal duration and reduced pupal mass and longevity were recorded. The most significant effects were obtained at the highest cadmium concentration. Females and males did not differ in sensitivity of life history traits to cadmium exposure. It is concluded that (1) cadmium exerts a strong adverse impact on the growth and development of gypsy moths, and (2) the significance of the cadmium effects depends on the dose.