Testiranje različitih metoda uzorkovanja makrobeskičmenjaka u vodenim ekosistemima i mogućnosti standardizacije
Testing different methods for sampling macroinvertebrates in aquatic ecosystems and examination of the possibility for their standardization
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Aquatic macroinvertebrate communities possess certain characteristics which render them as reliable indicators of environmental changes in aquatic ecosystems. In the review of the application of the Water Framework Directive in European countries, it was observed that in most cases water macroinvertebrates serve as the significant typological element, and that the reference conditions are based mainly on the researched group of hydro-biota. Current research in Europe is aimed at reviewing and establishing practical methods for sampling macroinvertebrates in order to ensure the successful implementation of the Water Framework Directive. Field work is the first step in every analysis of an macroinvertebrate community and the choice of efficient methods with regard to the type of ecosystem and goals of the study is of a great importance. Insufficient financial and technical resources for monitoring and applied research require the establishment of an effective methodology for collecting biological samples and a harmonized approach to insure data comparability. Applied research depends on the available financial resources and the scientific objective. This paper presents different sampling techniques for the study of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. It examines the problems encountered during sampling of specific faunistic ecological groups and different types of water bodies. The material was collected at 320 sites located primarily along different running waters in Serbia, from 2004 to 2016. To establish the efficiency of a particular method, we used data that was collected at sites outside of Serbia as follows: (i) the Danube River (a 2,500 km long sector from Regensburg to the Danube Delta); (ii) the Sava River (the entire course of the river with a length of 937 km); (iii) the rivers Neretva and Bosna in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including their tributaries. A detailed protocol for collecting material and supporting data is presented, including description of aquatic macroinvertebrate sampling techniques, selection and characterization of the sites, reviews of procedures used for the processing of the sampled material, as well as a discussion of the methods employed for the analysis of the obtained results. The results were analyzed with the software package ASTERICS 4.0.4 (AQEM Consortium, 2002) and "Statistica" Version 7 (StatSoft, Inc., 2004). Comparison of the different sampling methods for aquatic macroinvertebrate communities and specific groups within communities provided answers with regard to the standardization of the methodologies, the effects of the individual sampling methods on the results related to the diversity and spatial dynamics of the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in different aquatic ecosystems. Based on the obtained results, we optimized the aquatic macroinvertebrate sampling methodology for the aquatic ecosystems in Serbia. Also, methodologies for specific types of ecosystems and appropriate methods of selection for specific types of research are suggested, as well as methodologies best suited for a specific group of organisms (Mussels), with emphasis on large and very large rivers (based on the National typology of running waters in Serbia) which represent complex ecosystems.
Keywords:Aquatic macroinvertebrates; Sampling technique; Sampling efficiency; Standardization; Study design
Source:University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Science, 2016, 1-130
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