Polycyclism and phenological variability in the common oak (Quercus robur L.)
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Polycyclism is the ability for a plant to produce several flushes in the same growing season. The rare phenomenon of common oak (Quercus robur L.) summer flowering is proof of complex polycyclism. Common oak summer flowering and the unusual transformation of inflorescences were the starting point for this study of the phenological variability of common oak trees in identical site conditions. This paper presents comparative research of leaf flushing, flowering, and leaf fall phenophases in a common oak with summer flowering and a control tree in which this phenomenon was not observed. Both trees displayed frequent polycyclism (polyphase formation of annual shoots during the growing season), but with different intensities depending on the trees and the years. Compared to the control tree, the tree with summer flowering was characterized by a later onset of leaf-flush phenophase and leaf fall phenophase and a longer retention of the leaves in the crown.