Fractionation, Mobility, and Contamination Assessment of Potentially Toxic Metals in Urban Soils in Four Industrial Serbian Cities.
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The main soil properties, concentrations of selected elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn), and the chemical speciation of each element were determined in urban soil samples taken from urban parks in four Serbian cities (Belgrade, Pančevo, Obrenovac, and Smederevo) exposed to different sources of pollution. Pollution indices (PI, PIN) and factors (MF, ICF, GCF) also were evaluated. The study revealed As and Cd concentrations below the detection limit, whereas the content of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn at some sites exceeded the limits established by local regulations, as well as the background values, which may represent an environmental threat. Sequential extraction results show that Fe, Cr, Cu, and Ni were predominantly in the residual fraction at most sites; however, Ni from Pančevo and Smederevo also was bound to the reducible fraction. The presence of Pb at all sites and Zn in Smederevo and Belgrade was mainly associated with the reducible and residual fractions. The highest Mn content was found in the reducible fraction, followed by the acid soluble/exchangeable and residual fractions. Based on the obtained indices and factors, the overall soil status at the selected sampling sites was found to range from the warning limit to slightly polluted, whereby Smederevo had the highest risk, and Pančevo and the control site the lowest risk of contamination by toxic metals.
This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. The final authenticated version is available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-018-0518-x