Pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus infection in rats affects gastrointestinal homeostasis.
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© 2018 Elsevier GmbH
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Microbiota inhabiting mucosal tissues is involved in maintenance of their immune homeostasis. Growing body of evidence indicate that dysbiosis in gut influence immune responses at distal sites including lungs. There are also reports concerning gut involvement with pulmonary injury/inflammation in settings of respiratory viral and bacterial infections. The impact of infections with other microorganisms on gut homeostasis is not explored. In this study, the rat model of sublethal pulmonary infection with Aspergillus fumigatus was used to investigate the effect of fungal respiratory infection on gut immune-mediated homeostasis. Signs of intestinal damage, intestinal and gut-draining lymphoid tissue cytokine responses and gut bacterial microbiota diversity were examined. Intestinal injury, inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as increased levels of intestinal interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) (as opposed to unchanged levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10) during the two-week period depict intestinal inflammation in rats with pulmonary A. fumigatus infection. It could not be ascribed to the fungus as it was not detected in the intestine of infected rats. Increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by major gut-draining mesenteric lymph nodes point to these lymphoid organs as places of generation of cytokine-producing cells. No changes in spleen or systemic cytokine responses was observed, showing lack of the effects of pulmonary A. fumigatus infection outside mucosal immune system. Drop of intestinal bacterial microbiota diversity (disappearance of several bacterial bands) was noted early in infection with normalization starting from day seven. From day three, appearance of new bacterial bands (unique to infected individuals, not present in controls) was seen, and some of them are pathogens. Alterations in intestinal bacterial community might have affected intestinal immune tolerance contributing to inflammation. Disruption of gut homeostasis during pulmonary infection might render gastrointestinal tract more susceptible to variety of physiological and pathological stimuli. Data which showed for the first time gut involvement with pulmonary infection with A. fumigatus provide the baseline for future studies of the impact of fungal lung infections to gut homeostasis, particularly in individuals susceptible to these infections.
Кључне речи:Aspergillus fumigatus; Gut dysbiosis; Gut inflammation; Lung infection; Rats
Извор:Immunobiology, 2018, DOI:10.1016/j.imbio.2018.10.001-
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