Extract of the plant Cotinus coggygria Scop. attenuates pyrogallol-induced hepatic oxidative stress in Wistar rats
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To examine the protective potential of the Cotinus coggygria Scop. methanol extract, Wistar rats were treated with the hepatotoxic compound pyrogallol, which possesses a potent ability to generate free radicals and induce oxidative stress. The ability of the extract to counteract the oxidative stress was examined in rats that were injected with the extract intraperitoneally (500 mg·(kg body weight)(-1)) either 2 or 12 h before the pyrogallol treatment. The extract possesses a reducing activity in vitro and an ability to chelate the ferrous ion both in vivo and in vitro. Application of the extract prior to pyrogallol treatment led to a decrease in the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and attenuation of DNA damage, as well as increased Akt activity and inhibition of NF-κB protein expression. Treatment with the extract 12 h prior to pyrogallol administration was more effective in suppressing pyrogallol-induced oxidative damage than the 2 h pretreatment. Extract administration promoted an increase in acute phase reactants haptoglobin and α(2)-macroglobulin that was short of a full-fledged acute phase response. Administration of the extract considerably improved the markers of oxidative stress, thus revealing a potential hepatoprotective activity. Our results suggest that Akt activation, NF-κB inhibition, and induction of the acute phase play important roles in mediating hepatic protection by the extract. The greater effectiveness of the 12 h pretreatment with extract points to the important role that preconditioning assumes in improving resistance to subsequent exposure to oxidative stress.