Ethyl Pyruvate Stimulates Regulatory T Cells and Ameliorates Type 1 Diabetes Development in Mice.
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Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which a strong inflammatory response causes the death of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells, while inefficient regulatory mechanisms allow that response to become chronic. Ethyl pyruvate (EP), a stable pyruvate derivate and certified inhibitor of an alarmin-high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), exerts anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis and encephalomyelitis. To test its therapeutic potential in T1D, EP was administered intraperitoneally to C57BL/6 mice with multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLDS)-induced T1D. EP treatment decreased T1D incidence, reduced the infiltration of cells into the pancreatic islets and preserved β-cell function. Apart from reducing HMGB1 expression, EP treatment successfully interfered with the inflammatory response within the local pancreatic lymph nodes and in the pancreas. Its effect was restricted to boosting the regulatory arm of the immune response through up-regulation of tolerogenic dendritic cells (CD11c+CD11b-CD103+) within the pancreatic infiltrates and through the enhancement of regulatory T cell (Treg) levels (CD4+CD25highFoxP3+). These EP-stimulated Treg displayed enhanced suppressive capacity reflected in increased levels of CTLA-4, secreted TGF-β, and IL-10 and in the more efficient inhibition of effector T cell proliferation compared to Treg from diabetic animals. Higher levels of Treg were a result of increased differentiation and proliferation (Ki67+ cells), but also of the heightened potency for migration due to increased expression of adhesion molecules (CD11a and CD62L) and CXCR3 chemokine receptor. Treg isolated from EP-treated mice had the activated phenotype and T-bet expression more frequently, suggesting that they readily suppressed IFN-γ-producing cells. The effect of EP on Treg was also reproduced in vitro. Overall, our results show that EP treatment reduced T1D incidence in C57BL/6 mice predominantly by enhancing Treg differentiation, proliferation, their suppressive capacity, and recruitment into the pancreas.
Keywords:Ethyl pyruvate; Immunoregulation; Inflammation; Regulatory T cells (Treg); Type 1 diabetes (T1D)
Source:Frontiers in Immunology, 2019, 9, 3130-
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