REM sleep disorder following general anesthesia in rats.
© 2016 Elsevier Inc.
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Postoperative sleep disorders, particularly the REM sleep disorder, may have a significant deleterious impact on postoperative outcomes and may contribute to the genesis of certain delayed postoperative complications. We have followed the effect of distinct anesthesia regimens (ketamine/diazepam vs. pentobarbital) over 6days following the induction of a stable anesthetized state in adult male Wistar rats, chronically instrumented for sleep recording. In order to compare the effect of both anesthetics in the physiological controls vs. the rats with impaired pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) cholinergic innervation, during the operative procedure for the implantation of EEG and EMG electrodes, the bilateral PPT lesion was conducted using ibotenic acid (IBO). We have followed in particular post-anesthesia REM sleep. Our results show the distinct EEG microstructure of the motor cortex during the different stable anesthetized states, and their distinct impact on post-anesthesia REM sleep. In contrast to pentobarbital anesthesia, the ketamine/diazepam anesthesia potentiated the long-lasting post-anesthesia REM statewith higher muscle tone (REM1) vs. REM state with atonia (REM2). Whereas both anesthesias prolonged the post-anesthesia REM sleep duration, the long-term prolongation of the REM1 state was demonstrated only after the ketamine/diazepam anesthesia, first due to the increased number of REM1 episodes, and then due to the prolonged REM1 episodes duration. On the other hand, whereas both anesthetic regimens abolished the prolonged post-anesthesia REM/REM1 sleep and the EEG microstructure disorder during REM sleep, only the pentobarbital abolished the increased NREM/REM/NREM transitions, caused by the PPT lesion. In addition, in the PPT lesioned rats, the ketamine/diazepam anesthesia decreased the Wake/NREM/Wake transitions while the pentobarbital anesthesia decreased the Wake/REM/Wake transitions. Our present study suggests pentobarbital anesthesia as being highly beneficial for post-anesthesia REM sleep in the physiological condition as well as during PPT cholinergic neuropathology.
Keywords:Anesthesia; REM sleep; Rat; Sleep disorder; The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus
Source:Physiology & Behavior, 2017, 168, 41-54
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