Centaurium erythraea extract improves survival and functionality of pancreatic beta-cells in diabetes through multiple routes of action.
Arambašić Jovanović, Jelena
Article (Published version)
© 2019 Elsevier B.V.
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ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Centaurium erythraea Rafn (CE) is used as a traditional medicinal plant in Serbia to treat different ailments due to its antidiabetic, antipyretic, antiflatulent and detoxification effects. AIM OF THE STUDY Elucidation of the mechanisms that underlie the antioxidant and pro-survival effects of the CE extract (CEE) in beta-cells and pancreatic islets from streptozotocin (STZ)-treated diabetic rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS Diabetes was induced in rats by multiple applications of low doses of STZ (40 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.), for five consecutive days). CEE (100 mg/kg) was administered orally, in the pre-treated group for two weeks before diabetes induction, during the treatments with STZ and for four weeks after diabetes onset, and in the post-treatment group for four weeks after diabetes induction. The impact of CEE on diabetic islets was estimated by histological and immunohistochemical examination of the pancreas. Molecular mechanisms of the effects of CEE were also analyzed in insulinoma Rin-5F cells treated with STZ (12 mM) and CEE (0.25 mg/mL). Oxidative stress was evaluated by assessing the levels of DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, protein S-glutathionylation and enzymatic activities and expression of CAT, MnSOD, CuZnSOD, GPx and GR in beta-cells. The presence and activities of the redox-sensitive and islet-enriched regulatory proteins were also analyzed. RESULTS Treatment with CEE ameliorated the insulin level and glycemic control in STZ-induced diabetic rats by improving the structural and functional properties of pancreatic islets through multiple routes of action. The disturbance of islet morphology and islet cell contents in diabetes was reduced by the CEE treatment and was associated with a protective effect of CEE on the levels of insulin, GLUT-2 and p-Akt in diabetic islets. The antioxidant effect of CEE on STZ-treated beta-cells was displayed as reduced DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, protein S-glutathionylation and alleviation of STZ-induced disruption in MnSOD, CuZnSOD and CAT enzyme activities. The oxidative stress-induced disturbance of the transcriptional regulation of CAT, MnSOD, CuZnSOD, GPx and GR enzymes in beta-cells was improved after the CEE treatment, and was observed as readjustment of the presence and activities of redox-sensitive NFκB-p65, FOXO3A, Sp1 and Nrf-2 transcription factors. The observed CEE-mediated induction of proliferative and pro-survival pathways and insulin expression/secretion after STZ-induced oxidative stress in beta-cells could be partially attributed to a fine-tuned modulation of the activities of pro-survival Akt, ERK and p38 kinases and islet-enriched Pdx-1 and MafA regulatory factors. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study provide evidence that CEE improves the structural and functional properties of pancreatic beta-cells by correcting the endogenous antioxidant regulatory mechanisms and by promoting proliferative and pro-survival pathways in beta-cells.
Keywords:Antioxidant; Beta-cells; Centaurium erythraea; Diabetes mellitus; Oxidative stress; Pro-survival
Source:Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2019, 242, 112043-
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