Cadmium and Fullerenes in Liver Diseases
© 2019 Elsevier Inc.
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Oxidative stress (OS) represents an imbalance of free radicals production and antioxidant defense in which the extensive pro-oxidant production may cause damage to cell structures. OS is the major event occurring in pathogenesis of liver disorders, ranging from metabolic to proliferative disorders. Cadmium is a highly toxic and widespread toxicant. Cadmium itself is unable to generate free radicals directly, as cadmium does not undergo redox cycling. However, indirect generation of various radicals involving the superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, and nitric oxide has been reported. One of the biologically most relevant features of C60 fullerene is the ability to quench various free radicals, behaving as a “free radical sponge.” Conversely, photosensitization of C60 yields highly reactive singlet oxygen or superoxide anion. Therefore, the dual property of fullerene to either quench or generate cell-damaging reactive oxygen species could be potentially exploited for their development as cytoprotective or cytotoxic agents.
Keywords:Antioxidant protection; Cytochrome P450; Fullerene C60; Oxidative stress; Xenobiotic metabolism
Source:Dietary Interventions in Liver Disease, 2019, 333-344