Comparative analysis of cell death mechanisms induced by lysosomal autophagy inhibitors.
Article (Published version)
© 2019 Elsevier B.V.
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We performed a comparative analysis of molecular cytotoxic mechanisms of lysosomal autophagy inhibitors bafilomycin A1, chloroquine, and ammonium chloride in B16 mouse melanoma cells. All agents caused oxidative stress, mitochondrial depolarization, and caspase-dependent apoptotic death, which was not affected by genetic inactivation of autophagy. Cathepsin inhibition reduced only the cytotoxicity of chloroquine, indicating its ability to cause lysosomal membrane permeabilization. Bafilomycin reduced the mRNA levels of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, while chloroquine and ammonium chloride increased the mRNA expression of pro-apoptotic Pten and Puma, as well as anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL. Ammonium chloride additionally increased the mRNA expression of pro-apoptotic Bim and p53. All three agents decreased the activity of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and increased the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Chloroquine and ammonium chloride additionally stimulated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), respectively, while only bafilomycin increased the phosphorylation of the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). mTOR activator leucine did not affect the cytotoxicity of lysosomal inhibitors. p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 reduced the cytotoxicity of bafilomycin but increased that of chloroquine and ammonium chloride. The pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2, JNK, and AMPK potentiated the cytotoxicity of chloroquine, ammonium chloride, and bafilomycin, respectively. The observed mechanistic differences were associated with antagonistic interactions of lysosomal inhibitors in B16 cell killing. In conclusion, all investigated lysosomal inhibitors cause autophagy-independent mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic death, but differ in the ability to affect lysosomal permeabilization, balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic molecules of Bcl-2 family, and MAPK/AMPK signaling.
Keywords:AMPK; Apoptosis; Autophagy inhibitors; Bcl-2; Lysosomes; MAP kinases
Source:European Journal of Pharmacology, 2019, 859, 172540-
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