The Double-Faced Role of Nitric Oxide and Reactive Oxygen Species in Solid Tumors.
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Disturbed redox homeostasis represents a hallmark of cancer phenotypes, affecting cellular metabolism and redox signaling. Since reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) are involved in regulation of proliferation and apoptosis, they may play a double-faced role in cancer, entailing protumorigenic and tumor-suppressing effects in early and later stages, respectively. In addition, ROS and RNS impact the activity and communication of all tumor constituents, mediating their reprogramming from anti- to protumorigenic phenotypes, and vice versa. An important role in this dichotomic action is played by the variable amounts of O2 in the tumor microenvironment, which dictates the ultimate outcome of the influence of ROS/RNS on carcinogenesis. Moreover, ROS/RNS levels remarkably influence the cancer response to therapy. The relevance of ROS/RNS signaling in solid tumors is witnessed by the emergence of novel targeted treatments of solid tumors with compounds that target ROS/RNS action and production, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, which might contribute to the complexity of redox regulation in cancer. Prospectively, the dual role of ROS/RNS in the different stages of tumorigenesis through different impact on oxidation and nitrosylation may also allow development of tailored diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
Keywords:Cancer therapy; Nitric oxide; Reactive oxygen species
Source:Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 2020, 9, 5, 374-
- Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of Republic of Serbia (451-03-68/2020-14/200007)