Pesticide effects: Possible role of antioxidative defense enzymes in insects resistance
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During the several decades many species of insects have acquired resistance to used insecticides. This resistance is inherited and has proved to be one of the biggest barrier to successful chemical control of insects. Enzymes involved in the insecticide resistance include target enzymes such as cholinesterase and detoxifying enzymes such as the mixed function oxidase and glutathione transferees. The reactive oxygen species are producing during the detoxification processes. They are eliminated by the action of antioxidant enzyme activities. The constitutive expression of the ant oxidative enzyme activity of the pest insects are very important component of their susceptibility to insecticides. Changes in AO were found in development, aging, reproduction, metabolic disturbances, tropic regulation, host-plant adaptation and insecticide resistance. Insecticide resistance involves elevated AO enzymes. There are several reasons for that elevation: action of some insecticides and their detoxification in cells are accompanied by increased ROS production, and ROS are included in additional physiological disturbances caused by applied insecticides. Results suggest existence of a few common adaptive pathways for regulation of insecticide-induced changes and regulation of AO levels, and present basis for discussion about possible modulation of insecticide action and resistance by AO system.