Glukokortikoidni receptor u zdravlju i bolesti
Glucocorticoid receptor in health and disease
Article (Published version)
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Glucocorticoid hormones are essential for life, have a vital place in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and are increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of common disorders. Their action is mediated by an intracellular receptor protein, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), functioning as a ligand-inducible transcription factor. Multiple synthetic glucocorticoids are used as potent antiinflammatory and immuno suppressive agents, but their therapeutic usefulness is limited by a wide range and severity of side-effects. One of the most important pharmaceutical goals has been to design steroidal and non-steroidal GR ligands with profound therapeutic efficacy and reduced unwanted effects. The therapeutic benefit of glucocorticoid agonists is frequently compromised by resistance to glucocorticoids, which may depend on: access of the hormones to target cells, steroid metabolism, expression level and isoform composition of the GR protein, mutations and polymorphisms in the GR gene and association of the receptor with chaperone proteins. The major breakthrough into the critical role of glucocorticoid signaling in the maintenance of homeostasis and pathogenesis of diseases, as well as into the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic usefulness of antiinflammatory drugs acting through the GR is expected to result from the current progress in large-scale gene expression profiling technologies and computational biology.