Pomološko-tehnološke osobine plodova nekih sorti kupine u agroekološkim uslovima istočne Srbije
Pomological and technological features of certain blackberry cultivars in agro-ecological conditions of East Serbia
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The subject of the research in this work were the pomological-technical and productive characteristics of four blackberry cultivars, in the agro-ecological conditions of East Serbia. The collection plantation of blackberry was set up in 1998, on alluvial soil by the Timok river. The experiment comprised four cultivars (Čačanska bestrna, Black Satin, Thornfree, Hull Thornless), and the results that are shown here cover the period 2001-2003. The pomological-technical measures that were applied (soil cultivation, fertilization, irrigation) had a direct impact on maintaining the optimum humidity level in the soil, together with the optimum total water contents and the macro elements in the blackberry leaf. During summer months, especially during the harvest period, the average humidity of the soil was 13.2% (13.8%-12.6%). At the same time, the average total water contents in the leaf showed stability (65.3%), recording only minor variations (65.8-64.3%). The contents of nitrogen and phosphorus (recorded at 0.10%, i.e. 0.10-0.09%) and the potassium in the leaf was on a constant decrease in the period from June to August. The average content of nitrogen (recorded at 2.69%, i.e. 2.77-2.61%) and potassium (recorded at 1.58%, i.e. 1.62-1.47%) was at within the optimum levels for the blackberry, during the second half of June. At the same time, the phosphorus was deficient - recorded at 0.10% (0.10-0.09%). Cvs Čačanska bestrna and Black Satin were found to be the more vigorous cultivars, while Hull Thornless showed less vigor. The least vigorous was cv Thornfree. As for the fruit size, the dominant cultivars were Čačanska bestrna and Black Satin. Cultivars Thornfree and Hull Thornless produced fruits that were smaller in size and mass. The average yield of the fruit was 14.1 t/ha. The largest yield was recorded in cv Čačanska bestrna (15.3 t/ha), while the lowest recorded in the most widely spread cultivar, Thornfree (13.0 t/ha). The best quality of the chemical composition was found in the Thornfree cultivar, as compared to the Black Satin and Hull Thornless cultivars and, especially that of the Čačanska bestrna cultivar.