Influence of some metal concentrations on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and concentrations of vitamin E and SH-groups in the digestive gland and gills of the freshwater bivalve Unio tumidus from the Serbian part of Sava River
Authors:Borković-Mitić, Slavica S.
Perendija, Branka R.
Gavrić, Jelena P.
Gacić, Zoran M
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We examined whether the freshwater bivalve Unio tumidus from the Sava River can serve as a bioindicator organism for long-term biomonitoring of river ecosystems for the presence of metal pollutants. To this end, we assessed in the digestive glands and gills of mussels, changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), the phase II biotransformation enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST)), and changes in the concentrations of the non-enzymatic components of the antioxidant system (vitamin E and sulfhydryl groups (-SH), after exposure to metals in the environment. Mussels were collected at four sites where the concentrations of dissolved metals (Cu, Cd, Zn, Fe, Mn, Hg, Ni, As, Pb) were quantified. Cu, Ni and As exerted concentration-dependent inhibitory effects on CAT and GST activities. Increasing concentrations of Cd promoted increases in GSH-Px activity and -SH concentration. In response to increased Zn concentration GR activity increased whereas Fe promoted decreased enzymatic activity. Negative correlations between the concentrations of Cu and Cd and vitamin E, and a positive correlation between Mn and vitamin E concentrations were detected. The described correlations between components of the antioxidant system and metal levels in the environment reveal a high physiological sensitivity of freshwater mussels to pollution, supporting their use in biomonitoring of metal contamination in river ecosystems. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.