Local Proinflammatory Effects of Repeated Skin Exposure to Warfarin, An Anticoagulant Rodenticide in Rats
Authors:Popov, Aleksandra D.
Zolotarevski, Lidija D
Kataranovski, Dragan S.
Article (Published version)
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Objective: To evaluate the effects of epicutaneous application of anticoagulant warfarin, by examining the presence of tissue injury and immune/inflammatory activity in exposed skin. Methods: Rats were exposed to warfarin by applying 10 mu g of warfarin-sodium to 10-12 cm(2) skin (range 0.8-1 mu g per 1 cm(2)) for 3 consecutive days. Tissue injury was evaluated by lipid peroxidation, histomorphological changes and signs of reparative activity in skin. T cell infiltration and selected aspects of epidermal cell activity were examined as indicators of immune/inflammatory skin response to warfarin application. Results: Repeated warfarin application exerted no effect on skin metabolic viability, but resulted in tissue injury (increased malondialdehyde, MDA, production, evident histo-morphological changes in epidermis and dermis depicting cell injury and death). Increased numbers of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA(+)) cells indicated reparative processes in injured skin. Infiltration of CD3(+) cells (T lymphocytes) along with the increased production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by epidermal cells from warfarin-treated skin and their co-stimulatory effect in an in vitro T-cell activation assay demonstrated immunomodulatory effects of epicutaneous warfarin. Conclusion: Presented data have documented tissue damage associated with immune/inflammatory activity in skin exposed to warfarin. Observed effects are relevant to immunotoxic potential of this anticoagulant in settings of external exposure.
Source:Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 2011, 24, 2, -189