Influence of sodium salicylate on rosmarinic acid, carnosol and carnosic acid accumulation by Salvia officinalis L. shoots grown in vitro
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To evaluate sodium salicylate (NaSA) as an elicitor of rosmarinic acid (RA) and phenolic diterpenes, carnosol (C) and carnosic acid (CA) production, in a culture of Salvia officinalis shoots. In sage shoots grown in vitro, 28 polyphenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, and phenolic diterpenes) were identified. In shoots treated for 1 week with increasing NaSA concentrations, the content of C increased from 2.3 in control to 5.7 mg g(-1) DW in shoots treated with 500 A mu M NaSA. In shoots that were recovered on basal medium for 3 weeks, the maximal amount of C (14 mg/g(-1) DW) was with 150 A mu M NaSA treatment. In treated and recovered shoots, the increase in C was accompanied with a decrease in CA, resulting in 1.9-fold increase in the C/CA ratio. Accumulation of RA was not affected by the NaSA treatment. However, elicitation by NaSA was accompanied with growth retardation. NaSA can improve C production in sage shoot culture, probably by stimulating the conversion of CA to C.