Glutathione-dependent enzyme activities and concentrations of glutathione, vitamin E and sulfhydryl groups in barbel (Barbus barbus) and its intestinal parasite Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala)
Borković Mitić, Slavica
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Barbel (Barbus barbus) is the final host of the adult worm Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala), one of the most abundant and widespread intestinal parasites of European freshwater fish. During the course of the present study, we analyzed the activities of the glutathione-dependent enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR) and the phase II biotransformation enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as well as the concentrations of total glutathione (GSH), sulfhydryl (-SH) groups and vitamin E (Vit E) in the liver and intestine of B. barbus and in its intestinal parasite P. laevis. The,fish were caught from the Danube River (Serbia) in spring and summer. We detected that GSH-Px activity in fish liver was higher in spring. GR activity was significantly higher in spring in all investigated samples, while GST activity was significantly higher in spring in fish liver and in the parasite. At that time, GST activity was ten times higher in the parasite than in fish tissues. The concentration of GSH was increased in barbel liver in spring. In summer, the concentration of SH groups was significantly increased, while the concentration of Vit E was significantly decreased in fish tissues and in the parasite. We performed Canonical Discriminant Analysis, which revealed differentiation among the examined tissues during both seasons based on the all measured antioxidant components. We found that the seasonal patterns of antioxidant defense in the parasite are closely correlated with seasonal variation and physiological change in the host and represent the parasite's adaptation to changes in the host's antioxidant system. The present investigation contributes to general knowledge and provides a basis for future studies of glutathione-dependent enzymes and non-enzymatic low molecular mass antioxidants as potential biomarkers for monitoring the influence of the environment on fishes and their parasites. (C)2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.