Serum albumin binding analysis and toxicological screening of novel chroman-2,4-diones as oral anticoagulants
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Two chroman-2,4-dione derivatives, namely 2a and 2f, were tested as in vivo anticoagulants by seven days of continuous per os application to adult male Wistar rats in a concentration of 20 mg/kg of body weight. Derivatives were selected from a group of six previously intraperitoneally applied compounds on the basis of presenting remarkable activity in a concentration of 2 mg/kg of body weight. The derivatives 2a and 2f are VKORC1 inhibitors, and comparison of the absorption spectra, association, and dissociation constants suggested that the compounds will be bound to serum albumin in the same manner as warfarin is, leading to transfer towards the molecular target VKORC1. After oral administration, the compounds proved to be anticoagulants comparable with warfarin, inasmuch as the measured prothrombin times for 2a and 2f were 56.63 and 60.08 s, respectively. The INR values of 2a and 2f ranged from 2.6 to 2.8, recommending them as useful therapeutics in the treatment of patients suffering from thromboembolic events and atrial fibrillation. The high percentage of binding and high binding affinity of 2a and 2f towards serum albumin reduced the risk of induced internal bleeding. Several kinds of toxicity studies were performed to investigate whether or not 2a and 2f can cause pathological changes in the liver, kidneys, and DNA. The catalytic activity of serum enzymes, concentration and catalytic activity of liver and kidney oxidative stress markers and enzymes, respectively, as well as the observed hepatic and renal morphological changes indicated that the compounds in relation to warfarin induced irrelevant hepatic toxicity, no increment of necrosis, and inconsiderable oxidative damage in the liver and kidneys. Estimation of DNA damage using the comet assay confirmed that 2a and 2f caused no clinically significant genotoxicity. The higher activity and lower toxicity of 2f recommended this compound as a better drug candidate than 2a. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.