Essential-Oil Composition of the Needles Collected from Natural Populations of Macedonian Pine (Pinus peuce GRISEB.) from the Scardo-Pindic Mountain System
Marin, Petar D.
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The needle-terpene profiles of two natural Pinus peuce populations from the Scardo-Pindic mountain system (Mt. Osljak and Mt. Pelister) were analyzed. Among the 90 detected compounds, 87 were identified. The dominant constituents were alpha-pinene (45.5\%), germacrene D (11.1\%), beta-pinene (10.8\%), and camphene (10.3\%). The following eight additional components were found to be present in medium-to-high amounts (0.5-10\%): bornyl acetate (5.0\%), beta-phellandrene (3.4\%), beta-caryophyllene (2.9\%), beta-myrcene (0.9\%), germacrene D-4-ol (0.9\%), tricyclene (0.7\%), (E)-hex-2-enal (0.7\%), and bicyclogermacrene (0.6\%). Although the general needle-terpene profiles of the populations from Mt. Osljak and Mt. Pelister were found to be similar to those of the populations from Zeletin, Sjekirica, and Mokra Gora (Dinaric Alps), principle component analysis (PCA) of eight terpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, alpha-terpinolene, bornyl acetate, alpha-terpinyl acetate, beta-caryophyllene, trans-beta-farnesene, and germacrene D) in 139 tree samples suggested a divergence between the two population groups, i.e., the samples from the Scardo-Pindic mountain system and those from the Dinaric Alps. Genetic analysis of the beta-pinene content demonstrated a partial divergence between the two geographical groups. The profiles of both population groups differed from those published for populations from the Balkan-Rhodope mountains system (literature results), which were characterized by high contents of bornyl acetate and citronellol (Greek populations) or delta-car-3-ene (Bulgarian populations).