Antioksidativno, antimikrobno i alelopatsko dejstvo tri endemične vrste roda Nepeta (Lamiaceae)
Antioxidative, antimicrobial and allelopathic effects of three endemic Nepeta species (Lamiaceae)
Doctoral thesis (Published version)
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Nepeta rtanjnsis Diklić and Milojević, N. sibirica L. and N. nervosa Royle ex Bentham (fam. Lamiaceae) are endemic species of genus Nepeta that are insufficiently phytochemically characterized and poorly tested in a sense of their biological activity. These three species are characterized by different qualitative and quantitative nepetalactone content, what makes them ideal objects in investigating the biological activity of different stereoisomers of this compound. Considering that these species are rare, and extremely endangered in case of N. rtanjensis, plant material for the experiments was obtained by micropropagation. The research included phytochemical characterization of in vitro grown three Nepeta species , as well as analysis of their bioactivities such as antimicrobial, antioxidative activity and allelopathic potential. Phytochemical characterization of three Nepeta species grown in vitro, involving GC-MS, GC-FID, PTR-MS, Headspace GC-MS, HPLC-UV, HPLC-MS, and UHPLC/DAD/±HESI-MS/MS analyses, enabled identification and quantification of the main secondary metabolites (terpenes and phenolics). The dominant volatile compound from terpenes group is monoterpene lacton - nepetalactone, whereby its trans,cisisomer is mostly present in N. rtanjensis and its cis,trans- isomer in N. sibirica. In N. nervosa, nepetalactone has been detected only in traces. In all investigated species, rosmarinic acid is a dominant phenolic compound, while the other phenolic acids (chlorogenic, neochlorogenic and caffeic acids) are present in significantly lower concentrations. The results of ABTS and DPPH assays showed that methanol extracts of N. rtanjensis, N. sibirica and especially N. nervosa, possess considerable antioxidant activities, and the FRAP assay revealed high ferric reducing capacity for all the samples tested.. Significant antioxidant activity is attributed to phenolic acids, in the first place to rosmarinic acid. Nepetalactone doesn’t contribute notably to the antioxidant potential of the methanol extracts, but there is a possibility of antagonistic action between phenolic acids and nepetalactone. The methanol extracts of three Nepeta species show significant antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial and eight fungal species, and the activity originates from monoterpenic lactones and phenolic acids. The highest antimicrobial activity was recorded for N. rtanjensis methanol extract, while extracts of N. sibirica and N. nervosa were less efficient. Nepetalactone stereochemistry substantially determines its antimicrobial activity, whereby the trans,cis- isomer is more active than the cis,trans- one. It has been confirmed that N. rtanjensis and N. sibirica possess compounds that can influence growth and development of other plant species in their proximate surrounding, thus actively participating in allelopathic interactions. Allelopathic effect of N. rtanjensis and N. sibirica originates from the dominant bioactive compound of these species - nepetalactone. Stereochemistry of nepetalactone considerably determines its allelopathic potential, with trans,cis- isomer being more active than the cis,transnepetalactone. Allelopathic effect of nepetalactone is reflected through slugged dynamic of seed germination in the test species Lepidium sativum L., but also through its effect on biochemical processes that are the consequence of plant’s disturbed antioxidative system. Allelopathic effect of nepetalactone, especially of its trans,cis- isomer, leads to the changes in antioxidative system of cress seedlings by violating normal models of antioxidative enzymes expression and activity (POD, CAT, SOD, PPO). In cress seedlings, the inhibition of activities and changed profiles of POD, CAT, Fe-SOD and CuZn-SOD isoforms were observed. Trans,cis- nepetalactone action leads to the increased content of total phenols in the first phases of growth and development of L. sativum seedlings, which is followed by earlier induction of expression and increased PPO activity. During allelopathic interactions, nepetalactone induces certain modifications of sinapate metabolism in cress seedlings, which in general can be described by decreased conversion of sinapoylholin to sinapoylglucose, and further to sinapoylmalate. Allelopathic features of N. rtanjensis and N. sibirica indicate the possibility of successful application of these species and their bioactive components in agricultural practice, as bioherbicides, toward weed control. In this thesis the allelopathic effect of N. rtanjensis and N. sibirica was confirmed in case of crops L. sativum, Lactuca sativa L. cv. „Majska kraljica“, Lotus corniculatus L. cv. „Bokor“, and Brassica napus L., and weeds Stellaria media (L.) Vill., Rumex crispus L., and Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ecotype Colombia.
Keywords:Nepeta rtanjensis; Nepeta sibirica; Nepeta nervosa; Nepetalactone; Phenolic acid; Antioxidative potential; Antimicrobial effects; Allelopathy; Antioxidant enzyme
Source:University of Belgrade, Faculty of Biology, 2013, 1-218
- Physiological, chemical and molecular analysis of the diversity of selected rare and endangered plant species and application of biotechnology for ex situ conservation and production of biologically active compounds (RS-173024)
APA:Nestorović-Živković, J. (2013). Antioksidativno, antimikrobno i alelopatsko dejstvo tri endemične vrste roda Nepeta (Lamiaceae). University of Belgrade, Faculty of Biology. p. 218.
Vancouver:Nestorović-Živković J. Antioksidativno, antimikrobno i alelopatsko dejstvo tri endemične vrste roda Nepeta (Lamiaceae) [dissertation]. Belgrade: University of Belgrade, Faculty of Biology; 2013. 218 p.
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