Varijabilnost terpenskog sastava i morfoloških karakteristika četina Taxus baccata L. u Srbiji
Variability of terpene composition and morphological characteristics of Taxus baccata L. needles from Serbia
Doctoral thesis (Published version)
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In this study, the composition of the essential oil and morphologicalcharacteristics of Taxus baccata L. needles were examined. Plant material (twigs withneedles) was collected in the autumn of 2012 and 2013, from three natural yewpopulations in Serbia from the following locations: Požar (National Park “Tara”), naturereserve “Jelak” (National Park “Kopaonik”) and natural monument “Lazarev kanjon”(Mt. Malinik).The composition of the essential oil was investigated on a total of 47 samplesfrom all studied populations. The isolation of oil was performed by hydrodistillationusing Clevenger-type apparatus, and the composition was determined by GC-FID andGC-MS analyses. Of the 91 detected compounds, 87 were identified. The mostabundant compound classes were aliphatic alcohols (43.31%), terpenes (19.34%),aliphatic hydrocarbons (13.18%) and aliphatic aldehydes (11.09%). Ketones, fatty acids,carotenoid derived compounds, esters and aromatic compounds were presented insmaller amounts. Unknown compounds had an average relative content of 1.96%. In theterpene fraction, oxygenated monoterpenes dominated (13.99%). The predominantconstituents of the essential oil were 1-octen-3-ol (23.48%), (Z)-3-hexenol (11.46%)and myrtenol (11.38%).To assess variability of the essential oil content between studied populationsanalysis of variance, principal component analysis, cluster analysis and canonicaldiscriminant analysis were performed. One-way ANOVA revealed that 8 (normallydistributed compounds) exhibited statistically significant differences betweenpopulations (p<0.05): n-octanal, β-linalool, β-cyclocitral, (E)-β-ionone, eicosanal,trans-ferruginol, tricosanal and hexacosane. The principal component analysis of 22selected compounds revealed differentiations of individuals from populations Kopaonikand Malinik, as well as individuals from populations Tara and Malinik. The graphicalvisualization of analysis showed that individuals from Tara were rich inhexahydrofarnesyl acetone, pentacosane, geraniol and myrtenol, individuals fromKopaonik contained high levels of 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octen-3-one, 3-octanone, n-nonanal,hexadecanoic acid and junicedranol and individuals from Malinik contained high levelsof unknown compound 1, (Z)-3-hexenol, phytol and heptadecane...
Keywords:Taxus L.; Yew; Refugium; Essential oil; Morphology; Diversity; Variability; Climate; Multivariate analysis; Yew; Refugium; Essential oil; Morphology; Diversity; Variability; Climate; Multivariate analysis