The influence of propofol anesthesia exposure on nonaversive memory retrieval and expression of molecules involved in memory process in the dorsal hippocampus in peripubertal rats.
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© 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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BACKGROUND The effects of anesthetic drugs on postoperative cognitive function in children are not well defined and have not been experimentally addressed. AIMS The present study aimed to examine the influence of propofol anesthesia exposure on nonaversive hippocampus-dependent learning and biochemical changes involved in memory process in the dorsal hippocampus, in peripubertal rats as the rodent model of periadolescence. METHODS The intersession spatial habituation and the novel object recognition tasks were used to assess spatial and nonspatial, nonaversive hippocampus-dependent learning. The exposure to anesthesia was performed after comparably long acquisition phases in both tasks. Behavioral testing lasted for 2 consecutive days (24-hour retention period). Changes in the expression of molecules involved in memory retrieval/reconsolidation were examined in the dorsal hippocampus by Western blot and immunohistochemistry, at the time of behavioral testing. RESULTS Exposure to propofol anesthesia resulted in inappropriate assessment of spatial novelty at the beginning of the test session and affected continuation of acquisition in the spatial habituation test. The treatment did not affect recognition of the novel object at the beginning of the test session but it attenuated overall preference to novelty, reflecting retrieval of a weak memory. The expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (involved in memory retrieval) was decreased while the level of phosphorylated Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα and early growth response protein 1 (involved in memory reconsolidation) was increased in the dorsal hippocampus. The level of Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (neuronal activity indicator) was increased in the dorsal dentate gyrus. Enhanced exploratory activity was still evident in the propofol anesthesia exposure (PAE) group 48 hour after the treatment in both tasks. CONCLUSION In peripubertal rats, propofol anesthesia exposure affects memory retrieval and acquisition of new learning in the spatial and nonspatial, nonaversive learning tasks 24 hour after the treatment, along with the expression of molecules that participate in memory retrieval/reconsolidation in the dorsal hippocampus. These results may have clinical implications, favoring control of basic cognitive functions in older children after the propofol exposure.
Keywords:CaMKII; Egr-1/Zif-268; ERK1/2; FosB; Hippocampus; Novel object recognition; Open field habituation
Source:Paediatric Anaesthesia, 2018, 28, 6, 537-546