The phytoestrogen genistein prevents trabecular bone loss and affects thyroid follicular cells in a male rat model of osteoporosis.
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© 2018 Anatomical Society
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As a major phytoestrogen of soy, genistein effectively prevents bone loss in both humans and rat models of osteoporosis. However, although the bone-sparing effects of genistein are achieved directly through estrogen receptors, its mode of action on bone by modulation of other endocrine functions is not entirely clear. Thus, thyroid hormones and calcitonin (CT) have an essential influence on bone metabolism. Besides its action on bones, in this study we examined the effect of genistein on the activity of two different endocrine cell populations, thyroid follicular and C-cells. Fifteen-month-old Wistar rats were either bilaterally orchidectomized (Orx) or sham-operated (SO). Two weeks after surgery, half of the Orx rats were treated chronically with 30 mg kg-1 b.w. genistein (Orx + G) subcutaneously (s.c.) every day for 3 weeks, while the remaining Orx rats and the SO rats were given the same volume of sterile olive oil to serve as controls. For histomorphometrical analysis of the trabecular bone microarchitecture an ImageJ public domain image processing programme was used. Thyroid sections were analysed histologically and stereologically after visualization of follicular and C-cells by immunohistochemical staining for thyroglobulin and CT. Thyroid follicular epithelium, interstitium, colloid and CT-immunopositive C-cells were examined morphometrically. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin (OC), triiodothyronine (T3 ), thyroxine (T4 ) and CT were determined as well as urinary calcium (Ca2+ ) concentrations. Genistein treatment significantly increased cancellous bone area (B.Ar), trabecular thickness (TbTh) and trabecular number (TbN) (P < 0.05), but trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) was decreased (P < 0.05) compared with control Orx rats. In the thyroid, genistein treatment significantly elevated the relative volume density (Vv) of the follicular cells (P < 0.05) compared with Orx, whereas Vv of the colloid was lower (P < 0.05) than in the Orx. Evaluation of the biochemical parameters showed significant reductions in serum OC, T3 , T4 and urinary Ca2+ concentrations (P < 0.05), compared with Orx rats. These data indicate that genistein treatment improves the trabecular microarchitecture of proximal tibia, induces histomorphometrical changes in thyroid glands, and decreases circulating thyroid hormone levels in orchidectomized rat model of male osteoporosis.
Keywords:Bone; Genistein; Male rats; Osteoporosis; Thyroid cells; Thyroid hormones
Source:Journal of Anatomy, 2018
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- COST Action FA 1403 POSI- TIVe