Evaluation of oxidative stress biomarkers in the freshwater gammarid Gammarus dulensis exposed to trout farm outputs
Perić Mataruga, Vesna
Article (Published version)
© 2018 Elsevier Inc.
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The current study reports a combined seasonal monitoring of the Crnica River watercourse using physico-chemical parameters and biomarkers measured in Gammarus dulensis with the aim of correlating the effects of pollution with the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in this amphipod. The pollution source is identified as a trout farm in the upper part of the Crnica River (Eastern Serbia). Physico-chemical water parameters and sediment trace element concentrations were measured in the Crnica River during three seasons. Three localities downstream [CR2, CR3, and CR4 (20 m, 400 m, and 1.3 km from the trout farm discharge, respectively)] were assessed in comparison with a reference location (CR1), 250 m upstream from the trout aquaculture in the Crnica River. Antioxidant biomarkers including the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were determined in pooled samples of G. dulensis. Our findings showed statistically different antioxidant enzyme levels in gammarids from the first downstream locality (CR2) compared to those from other three localities. The results indicate that oxidative stress occurred to some extent despite the assumed antioxidant induction as a result of exposure to elevated levels of some elements and changed water parameters, the effects seeming in part to be mediated by suppression of SOD and CAT (during summer and autumn); and by suppression of GPX and GR (during autumn) at the CR2 locality. The activity of GST in all seasons was higher at the CR2 locality than at the other localities, suggesting the presence of some permanent xenobiotic next to the aquaculture output. Seasonal difference in the physical and chemical water parameters and sediment trace element concentrations were observed. Overall, our results indicate a locality- and season-dependent antioxidant enzymes response in G. dulensis, pointing at progressively reduced deleterious effect of trout farm outputs with movement further downstream.
Keywords:Trout farm; Gammarus dulensis; Antioxidant enzyme; Trace elements; Season
Source:Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2018, 163, 84-95
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