Phenol-based millipede defence: antimicrobial activity of secretions from the Balkan endemic millipede Apfelbeckia insculpta (L. Koch, 1867) (Diplopoda: Callipodida).
Ljaljević Grbić, Milica
Article (Published version)
© 2019, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.
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Millipedes use an array of chemical compounds to defend themselves from predator attack. These chemical substances can have additional roles, i.e. defence against various pathogens. We evaluated the efficacy of the defensive secretion of Apfelbeckia insculpta (L. Koch, 1867) against bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi. The tested secretion consisted of two compounds, p-cresol and phenol, and showed antibacterial, antibiofilm, and antifungal potential against all selected microorganisms. The most sensitive bacterium in our study was Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while the tested defensive secretion manifested the lowest activity against Escherichia coli. The defensive secretion of A. insculpta also showed an ability, albeit mild, to suppress biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa. Among the tested yeasts, Candida albicans and C. krusei were the most susceptible and most resistant species, respectively. Finally, the concentration of extracts obtained from the tested defensive secretion needed to achieve an antifungal effect was lowest in the case of Cladosporium cladosporioides. Fusarium verticillioides and Penicillium rubens were the micromycetes most resistant to the tested secretion. Our results indicate that antibacterial activity of the defensive secretion of A. insculpta is similar to or slightly weaker than that of streptomycin, while comparison with antimycotics showed that the tested millipede secretion has stronger activity than fluconazole, but weaker activity than nystatin and ketoconazole. The present study corroborates previous findings indicating that the defensive secretions of millipedes can have different roles apart from antipredator protection and are effective against pathogenic microorganisms.
Keywords:Antibacterial and antifungal activity; Gas chromatography mass spectrometry; Microdilution; Millipedes; Pathogens
Source:Die Naturwissenschaften, 2019, 106, 7-8, 37-
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