Vegetation in ravine habitats of Montenegro
Book part (Accepted Version)
© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020
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Due to topographic, climatic, geological and soil complexity, vegetation of Montenegro is remarkably diverse. We reviewed plant communities of Montenegro by focusing attention on vegetation in ravine habitats. Some of the main rivers of Montenegro (the Morača, Komarnica, Piva and Tara Rivers) flow through spectacular canyons. Due to relatively low climate-induced and human-induced disturbances of habitats, the ravine vegetation in Montenegro represents an important biodiversity hotspot and significant pool of rare, paleo-endemic species. We performed comparative analyses of biodiversity in mesic forests that occur in non-ravine habitats (alliances Aremonio-Fagion (Horvat 1950), Borhidi in Török et al. 1989 and Galio odorati-Fagion sylvaticae Knapp ex Tx. et Oberd. 1958) and in numerous canyons of Montenegro [alliances Ostryo-Fagion Borhidi 1963 and Ostryo carpinifoliae-Tilion platyphylli (Košir et al. 2008) Čarni in Willner et al. 2016]. Both alpha diversity (within-community diversity) and beta diversity (diversity among communities) are significantly greater in canyons than in non-ravine habitats.