Variranje in vitro odgovora pšenice, uticaj genotipa i spoljne sredine
Variability of in vitro culture response in wheat genotypes, genotype and environmental effects
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The tissue culture response (TCR) of immature embryos, evaluated according to callus formation, percentage of regenerative green-spotted calli and the number of plants per embryo, was investigated in 96 wheat genotypes of worldwide origins. Immature embryos were collected 12-15 DAP from field-grown plants during three successive years 2003, 2004 and 2005. Year 2003 was with high air temperatures and tropical days during a period of vegetation, while the environmental conditions were more favorable for plant growth in the next two years, 2004 and 2005. Embryos were cultured on standard MS medium containing 2 mg l-1 2, 4-D. In all genotypes calli were efficiently induced, ranging from 36.7 to 100% (2003), 68.4 to 100% (2004), and 94.3 to 100% (2005). The calli occasionally formed green spots, but frequencies markedly differed among genotypes that varied from 0 to 72.5% (2003), 0 to 97.9% (2004), and 0 to 94.0% (2005). Coefficient of variation was highest in term of percent of regenerative calli (66.7%) following by a number of plants per embryo (35.6%) and callus formation (5.1%). Components of phenotypic variance showed that factor year (71.4%) had the highest impact on expression of callus formation, genetic factor (47,1%) on percentage of regenerative green-spotted calli and interaction year/genotype (30.3%) on number of plants per embryo. The results indicated factor genotype as the most important for determining regeneration potential in wheat.
Keywords:immature embryos; callus formation; regenerating calli; plant regeneration; genotype; environmental condition; wheat
Source:Genetika, 2006, 38, 3, 183-192