Principi NAT tehnologije sa osvrtom na rezultate Instituta za transfuziologiju VMA u periodu od 2007. do 2011. godine
Principles of NAT technology in view of the results obtained at the Institute of Transfusiology of MMA from 2007 till 2011
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Nucleic-acid Amplification Testing (NAT) consist of extraction, amplification, hybridization and detection. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is method for amplification of viral genetic material (DNA/RNA) in enough number of copies, so we can detect them. Since year 1943, when transmission of hepatitis via transfusion was reported till beginning of 21st century, when NAT was implemented, large number of tests for detection of hepatitis B and C virus (HBV, HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were developed. In this article, we describe basic princples of detection of these viruses by NAT. We also show results from testing samples of blood donors in Institute of Transfusiology from April 2007 till June 2011. From 50 369 donors testing in Mini Pools (MP) of 24, we found two HCV RNA positive samples, one HBV DNA positive sample and all pools were HIV RNA negative. From 2 689 samples which were testing by Individual Donation (ID) NAT, 135 were HBV DNA positive, 108 were HCV RNA positive and 7 were HIV RNA positive. All samples also were tested by Enzyme Link Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Confirmatory tests. Comparison of our results show validity of NAT testing, especially when ELISA tests of less specificity and sensitivity were used.