Uticaj održavanja zemljišta na pomološko-tehnološke osobine ploda i prinos nekih sorti šljive
Impact of soil cultivation on fruit characteristics and yield in some plum cultivars
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The study deals with the implementation of certain cultivation measures, such as the use of ground covers (black foil, white foil, plant material), herbicide treatments, and manual hilling (controlling the space) between the rows of fruit trees and their impact on the pomological-technological and productive characteristics of the fruits of five plum cultivars (California Blue, Čačanska Lepotica, Čačanska Najbolja, Stanley and Čačanska rodna). The largest fruit size (length, width and thickness) was recorded with the variant of covering the ground with the black foil; at the same time, the smallest fruit size was recorded with the fifth control variant. In comparison with the control variant, the length of the fruit was bigger by 5.7-0.2 mm, the width was bigger by 3.5-0.6 mm, while the thickness was bigger by 3.4-0.5 mm. The size of the stone was bigger than in the control variant by 3.4-0.6 mm, 1.2-1.0 and 0.4-0.2 mm. On the average, the fruit mass of the studied cultivars ranged from 39.4 g (black foil) to 28.5 g (control group). When compared to the control group, the other variants recorded a higher fruit mass, in the scope of 10.9 g to 2.0 g, or between 27.7% and 6.6%. The mass of the stone in the variants that underwent the described soil treatment ranged from 1.55 g (where plant material was used as a covering) to 1.46 g (where herbicides were applied), while the control group recorded the average stone mass of 1.54 g. The contents of the flesh ranged from 96.1% (black foil) to 95.1% (plant material). At the control group, it was 94.6%. The fruit yield was within the total of 26.8 kg per tree (black foil), to 20.2 kg per tree (control group). In tones per hectare, this amounts to a range between 13.4 t/ha and 10.1 t/ha. In comparison with the control group, the yield was higher by between 6.6 kg per tree and 3.6 kg per tree, which is equal to 3.3 t/ha - 1.8 t/ha (24.7- 5.2%) When compared to the control group, the content of the dry matter and total soluble matter was increased by 1.1-0.5%, i.e. by 1.1-0.2%. The total sugars content was also higher, by 2.0-0.5%. Compared to the control group, the variant of the hilling produced a lower content of the acids in the fruit, by 0.26-0.16%. The sweetness index ranged from 12.1 (in the black and white foil variants) to 8.6% (control group).
Keywords:plum; šljiva; sorte; hilling; fruit size; zastiranje; mass of fruit; plodovi; krupnoća; chemical composition; masa; yield; hemijski sastav; prinos
Source:Voćarstvo, 2007, 41, 159, 129-133